Case report of extensive metabolism by aldehyde oxidase in humans: pharmacokinetics and metabolite profile of FK3453 in rats, dogs, and humans

Xenobiotica. 2011 May;41(5):372-84. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2010.549970. Epub 2011 Mar 9.


We describe the preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic profiles of FK3453 [6-(2-amino-4-phenylpyrimidin-5-yl)-2-isopropylpyridazin-3(2H)-one] and the mechanism responsible for poor oral exposure of FK3453 in humans. FK3453 showed favourable profiles in preclinical pharmacokinetic studies, including satisfactory absolute bioavailability and total body clearance in animals (30.5%-41.4%, 54.7%-68.2%, and 71.3%-93.4% and 10.8-17.6, 1.9-17.1, and 5.0 mL/min/kg in male rats, female rats, and dogs, respectively), and good metabolic stability in liver microsomes (42.3, 14.5, and 1.1 mL/min/kg in male rats, dogs, and humans, respectively). However, despite these promising preclinical findings, plasma concentrations of FK3453 in humans were extremely low, with the oxidative metabolite of the aminopyrimidine moiety (M4) identified as a major metabolite. Given that aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidase (XO) were presumed to be the enzymes responsible for M4 formation, we investigated the mechanism of M4 formation using human liver subcellular fractions. M4 was detected in the incubation mixture with S9 and cytosol but not with microsomes, and M4 formation was inhibited by AO inhibitors (menadione, isovanillin) but not by cytochrome P-450 inhibitor (1-aminobenzotiazole) or XO inhibitor (allopurinol). These results suggest M4 formation is catalyzed by AO, and therefore, its poor exposure in humans was attributed to extensive AO metabolism.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Aldehyde Oxidase / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cytosol / enzymology
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways
  • Metabolome*
  • Protein Binding
  • Pyridazines / administration & dosage
  • Pyridazines / metabolism*
  • Pyridazines / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pyrimidines / administration & dosage
  • Pyrimidines / chemistry
  • Pyrimidines / metabolism*
  • Pyrimidines / pharmacokinetics*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Subcellular Fractions / metabolism
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • FK3453
  • Pyridazines
  • Pyrimidines
  • Aldehyde Oxidase