Antigen-specific adaptive immune responses in fingolimod-treated multiple sclerosis patients

Ann Neurol. 2011 Feb;69(2):408-13. doi: 10.1002/ana.22352.


T cells exit secondary lymphoid organs along a sphingosine1-phosphate (S1P) gradient and, accordingly, are reduced in blood upon fingolimod-mediated S1P-receptor (S1PR)-blockade. Serving as a model of adaptive immunity, we characterized cellular and humoral immune responses to influenza vaccine in fingolimod-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in untreated healthy controls. Although the mode of action of fingolimod might predict reduced immunity, vaccine-triggered T cells accumulated normally in blood despite efficient S1PR-blockade. Concentrations of anti-influenza A/B immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG also increased similarly in both groups. These results indicate that fingolimod-treated individuals can mount vaccine-specific adaptive immune responses comparable to healthy controls.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity / immunology*
  • Adult
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
  • Female
  • Fingolimod Hydrochloride
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis / drug therapy*
  • Multiple Sclerosis / immunology*
  • Propylene Glycols / therapeutic use*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Sphingosine / therapeutic use
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Propylene Glycols
  • Fingolimod Hydrochloride
  • Sphingosine