Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is an important component of the therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Treatment with high-dose MTX often causes toxicity, recommending a dose reduction and/or cessation of treatment. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the MTX metabolism have been associated with toxicity with controversial results. The discrepancies could be due to differences in treatment protocols among studies, small, or non-homogeneous populations or the use of different toxicity criteria. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible correlation of polymorphisms of genes involved in the MTX metabolism with the toxicity during therapy with the well-established LAL/SHOP protocol.
Procedure: We analyzed 10 polymorphisms in seven genes (MTHFR, TS, SHMT1, RFC1, ABCB1, ABCG2, and SLCO1B1) from the MTX metabolism in 115 Spanish pediatric B-ALL patients, using MTX plasma concentration as an objective and quantifiable marker of toxicity.
Results: We confirmed the suitability of MTX plasma levels as a toxicity marker. We found a statistically significant association between MTX plasma concentration and the SLCO1B1 rs11045879 CC genotype (P = 0.030). The rs4149081 AA genotype, in the same gene, could also be an indicator for high-MTX plasma concentrations. We did not find any significant association in the other genetic polymorphisms analyzed.
Conclusions: Identification of the rs4149081 and rs11045879 SLCO1B1 polymorphisms in children with ALL could be a useful tool for monitoring patients at risk of low-MTX clearance in order to avoid MTX-related toxicity.
Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.