Stability of virulence in P. brasiliensis isolates was studied with respect to the in vitro culture history and methods used for storage. Virulence in yeast-form P. brasiliensis isolates was tested in a chronic pulmonary murine model of paracoccidiodomycosis where progression of disease was quantitated in terms of colony forming units recoverable from lungs. Four isolates of P. brasiliensis, including recently isolated form patients or experimental animals, caused chronic progressive disease. Two isolates with a history of subculturing showed attenuation by causing resolving but chronic disease. An attenuated isolate became avirulent subsequent to 15 more years of subculturing. These findings suggest that virulence of P. brasiliensis can be attenuated or lost subsequent to cycles of subculturing over long periods. Our data suggest that the use of fresh P. brasiliensis isolates may be needed to provide reproducible virulence for experimental systems.