Multidrug therapy increases the risk for drug-drug interactions. Clopidogrel, a prodrug, requires hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic activation to produce the active metabolite that inhibits the platelet P2Y₁₂ adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor, decreasing platelet activation and aggregation processes. Atorvastatin, omeprazole, and several other drugs have been shown in pharmacodynamic studies to competitively inhibit CYP activation of clopidogrel, reducing clopidogrel responsiveness. Conversely, other agents increase clopidogrel responsiveness by inducing CYP activity. The clinical implications of these pharmacodynamic interactions have raised concern because many of these drugs are coadministered to patients with coronary artery disease. There are multiple challenges in proving that a pharmacodynamic drug-drug interaction is clinically significant. To date, there is no consistent evidence that clopidogrel-drug interactions impact adverse cardiovascular events. Statins and proton pump inhibitors have been shown to decrease adverse clinical event rates and should not be withheld from patients with appropriate indications for therapy because of concern about potential clopidogrel-drug interactions. Clinicians concerned about clopidogrel-drug interactions have the option of prescribing either an alternative platelet P2Y₁₂ receptor inhibitor without known drug interactions, or statin and gastro-protective agents that do not interfere with clopidogrel metabolism.
Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.