The selection and prevalence of natural and fortified calcium food sources in the diets of adolescent girls

J Nutr Educ Behav. 2011 Mar-Apr;43(2):96-102. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2010.02.016.


Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls.

Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis.

Setting and participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology from 1997 to 2008.

Intervention: Subjects randomly assigned to a high-calcium (HC) diet supplying 1,500 mg calcium/d, or their usual diet (UC).

Main outcome measures: Dietary intake was assessed from 3-day food records and calcium intakes categorized by food source. Food group composites, representing calcium-fortified and dairy food categories, were examined for their relative nutrient contributions. Student t tests were used to evaluate differences in selected nutrient intakes between the 2 study groups.

Results: Dairy food contributed 68% of the total mean 1,494 mg calcium/d in the HC group, and calcium-fortified food contributed 304 mg calcium. In the UC group, dairy food contributed 69% of the total mean 765 mg calcium/d and calcium-fortified food contributed 50 mg calcium. Nutrient profiles of the dairy composites differed significantly from the calcium-fortified composites (P < .05).

Conclusions and implications: Dairy food was the primary source of calcium selected by these adolescent girls; calcium-fortified food augmented calcium intakes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Bone and Bones / drug effects
  • Bone and Bones / physiology*
  • Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Diet
  • Diet Records
  • Female
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Prevalence
  • Resistance Training
  • Weight-Bearing / physiology


  • Bone Density Conservation Agents
  • Calcium, Dietary