A framework integrating plant growth with hormones and nutrients

Trends Plant Sci. 2011 Apr;16(4):178-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2011.02.004. Epub 2011 Mar 9.


It is well known that nutrient availability controls plant development. Moreover, plant development is finely tuned by a myriad of hormonal signals. Thus, it is not surprising to see increasing evidence of coordination between nutritional and hormonal signaling. In this opinion article, we discuss how nitrogen signals control the hormonal status of plants and how hormonal signals interplay with nitrogen nutrition. We further expand the discussion to include other nutrient-hormone pairs. We propose that nutrition and growth are linked by a multi-level, feed-forward cycle that regulates plant growth, development and metabolism via dedicated signaling pathways that mediate nutrient and hormonal regulation. We believe this model will provide a useful concept for past and future research in this field.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Models, Biological
  • Nitrogen / metabolism*
  • Plant Development*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism*
  • Plants / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Nitrogen