Molecular typing and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from poultry, food, and humans in Serbia

Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2011 Jan;56(1):66-71. doi: 10.1007/s12223-011-0003-7. Epub 2011 Mar 11.


Molecular typing and resistotyping coupled with gyrA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of 60 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) isolates originated from poultry, food, and humans in Serbia is described. Molecular fingerprinting was performed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using four primers, and the diversity index (D) was 0.688. In combination with resistotyping and gyrA SNP, D increased to 0.828. A total of 23 genetic groups were obtained. When four RAPD primers were combined, epidemic isolates from a fast-food restaurant outbreak were clustered in a distinctive genetic group. Among 60 SE strains, three had multiple resistances to three or more antibiotics. Nine strains were resistant to nalidixic acid (NAL; a non-fluorinated quinolone). The mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) found in NAL-resistant strains were attributed to Asp(87) → Asn in six strains, Asp(87) → Gly in one strain, and Ser(83) → Phe in one strain. One NAL-resistant strain had no mutations in QRDR, suggesting another mechanism of resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Chickens
  • DNA Gyrase / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Food Microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Molecular Typing
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Poultry Diseases / microbiology*
  • Salmonella Infections / microbiology*
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / microbiology*
  • Salmonella enteritidis / classification
  • Salmonella enteritidis / drug effects*
  • Salmonella enteritidis / genetics
  • Salmonella enteritidis / isolation & purification*
  • Serbia


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA Gyrase