Objectives: Cross-sectional studies in bipolar disorder (BD) suggested the presence of cognitive deficits and subtle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in limbic areas that may persist at euthymic stages. Whether or not cognitive and MRI changes represent stable attributes of BD or evolve with time is still matter of debate. To address this issue, we performed a 2-year longitudinal study including detailed neuropsychological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses of 15 euthymic older BD patients and 15 controls.
Methods: Neuropsychological evaluation concerned working memory, episodic memory, processing speed, and executive functions. MRI analyses included voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of gray matter including region of interest (ROI) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis of white matter of diffusion tensor imaging derived fractional anisotropy (FA).
Results: BD patients displayed significantly lower performances in processing speed and episodic memory but not in working memory and executive functions compared to controls. However, BD patients did not differ from controls in the mean trajectory of cognitive changes during the 2 years follow-up. In the same line, longitudinal gray matter (VBM, ROI) and white matter (TBSS FA) changes did not differ between BD patients and controls.
Conclusion: The lack of distinction between BD patients and controls in respect to the 2-year changes in cognition and MRI findings supports the notion that this disorder does not have a significant adverse impact on cognitive and brain aging. From this point of view, the present results convey a message of hope for patients suffering from BD.
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.