Differentiation of human kidney stones induced by melamine and uric acid using surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry

J Mass Spectrom. 2011 Mar;46(3):313-9. doi: 10.1002/jms.1894.


Clinically obtained human kidney stones of different pathogenesis were dissolved in acetic acid/methanol solutions and then rapidly analyzed by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (SDAPCI-MS) without any desalination treatment. The mass spectral fingerprints of six groups of kidney stone samples were rapidly recorded in the mass range of m/z 50-400. A set of ten melamine-induced kidney stone samples and nine uric acid derived kidney stone samples were successfully differentiated from other groups by principal component analysis of SDAPCI-MS fingerprints upon positive-ion detection mode. In contrast, the mass spectra recorded using negative-ion detection mode did not give enough information to differentiate those stone samples. The results showed that in addition to the melamine, the chemical compounds enwrapped in the melamine-induced kidney stone samples differed from other kidney stone samples, providing useful hints for studying on the formation mechanisms of melamine-induced kidney stones. This study also provides useful information on establishing a MS-based platform for rapid analysis of the melamine-induced human kidney stones at molecular levels.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi / chemically induced
  • Kidney Calculi / chemistry*
  • Kidney Calculi / classification
  • Kidney Calculi / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Imaging
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Triazines / chemistry*
  • Triazines / poisoning
  • Uric Acid / chemistry*


  • Triazines
  • Uric Acid
  • melamine