Tick paralysis in Australia caused by Ixodes holocyclus Neumann

Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2011 Mar;105(2):95-106. doi: 10.1179/136485911X12899838413628.


Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. They are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing human disease. Ticks are formidable arachnids, capable of not only transmitting the pathogens involved in some infectious diseases but also of inducing allergies and causing toxicoses and paralysis, with possible fatal outcomes for the host. This review focuses on tick paralysis, the role of the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus, and the role of toxin molecules from this species in causing paralysis in the host.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Australia
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disease Vectors
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Ixodes / immunology
  • Ixodes / metabolism
  • Ixodes / pathogenicity*
  • Tick Paralysis / diagnosis
  • Tick Paralysis / etiology*
  • Tick Paralysis / therapy
  • Toxins, Biological / biosynthesis
  • Toxins, Biological / toxicity
  • Toxoids / immunology


  • Toxins, Biological
  • Toxoids