Background: Liver cirrhosis is a major risk factor for cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. However, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (OPCABG) may be a less invasive alternative strategy.
Methods: Among the 9,877 patients undergoing first PCI or CABG enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry (a registry of first-time PCI and CABG patients in Japan), 332 patients diagnosed with liver cirrhosis were entered into the study (age 67.1±9.4 years; 246 male). Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed by liver biopsy or signs of portal hypertension with characteristic morphologic liver and spleen changes.
Results: A total of 233 patients received PCI, 58 conventional on-pump CABG (CCABG), and 41 OPCABG. Median follow-up was 3.3 years. The PCI group included less complex coronary lesions such as triple vessel and left main disease (p<0.01 each). Propensity score adjusted in-hospital mortality after CCABG or OPCABG was higher than that after PCI; however, the differences were not significant (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 6.84 [0.52 to 90.8], p=0.14 for CCABG versus PCI; and 1.86 [0.08 to 45.8], p=0.71 for OPCABG versus PCI). Adjusted overall mortality after CCABG or CABG was lower than that after PCI, but the differences were not significant (0.66 [0.31 to 1.40], p=0.28; and 0.64 [0.28 to 1.49], p=0.31, respectively). Approximately two thirds of patients died of noncardiovascular morbidities (malignancies, including hepatocarcinoma, or hepatic decompression).
Conclusions: Because overall noncardiovascular mortality is high among patients with liver cirrhosis, complete revascularization may not be associated with better survival outcomes. Further study is warranted to determine the impact of a coronary revascularization strategy for liver cirrhosis patients.
Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.