Purpose: This study investigated the preoperative serum levels of CYFRA 21-1 and CEA as prognostic factors in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer.
Subjects: This study evaluated 341 patients who had undergone a complete resection for stage I NSCLC between 2002 and 2008.
Results: The patients included 193 males and 148 females. The mean age of the patients was 69.2 years (range: 19-88). The histological types included 264 adenocarcinomas, 56 squamous cell carcinomas, 11 large cell carcinomas, and 10 other types of carcinoma. A pneumonectomy was performed in 2 patients, a bilobectomy in 7, a lobectomy in 255, a segmentectomy in 46, and partial resection of the lung in 31 patients. The positive rates for CYFRA 21-1 in the adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients were 33.3% and 76.8%, respectively. The positive rates for CEA in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients were 23.8% and 26.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate after surgery in the normal CYFRA 21-1 group and the high CYFRA 21-1 groups were 92.8% and 75.4%, respectively, in the patients with stage I NSCLC. There was a significant difference between the 2 groups (p<0.0001). The 5-year survival rate according to the serum level of CEA in the patients with stage I NSCLC were 88.3% for the normal group and 76.3% for the high group. In a multivariate analysis using the variables found to be significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis, a high CYFRA 21-1 level was found to be a significant independent prognostic factor (95% confidence interval 1.213-5.442, p=0.014).
Conclusion: A high preoperative CYFRA 21-1 level was a significant independent prognostic factor in patients with stage I NSCLC. The patients with a high CYFRA 21-1 level should carefully followed-up to rule out occult metastasis. Further clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant therapy for the patients selected according to this criterion.
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