Stabilization of a magnetic nano-adsorbent by extracted pectin to remove methylene blue from aqueous solution: a comparative studying between two kinds of cross-linked pectin

J Hazard Mater. 2011 May 15;189(1-2):158-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.02.013. Epub 2011 Mar 12.


The removal of methylene blue (MB) as a cationic dye from aqueous solution by the stabilized Fe(3)O(4) nano-particles with the extracted pectin from apple waste (FN-PA) increased due to using the cross-linked forms of the bound pectin on the nano-particles surface by glutaraldehyde (FN-PAG) and adipic acid (FN-PAA) as the cross-linking agents. This increase happened in spite of binding some of the adsorbent functional groups of pectin with nano-particles. It can be due to the local concentrate of other free functional groups after connecting with nano-scale particles. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption equilibrium constant and the maximum adsorption capacities increased with increasing temperature for all of the nano-bioparticles. The kinetic followed the second-order models with the highest rate constants viz. 16.23, 19.76 and 23.04 (× 10(-3)g/mg min) by FN-PAA. The adsorption force arrangement of MB by these nano-biosorbents regarding their activation energy was obtained as: FN-PAA>FN-PAG>FN-PA.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adipates
  • Adsorption*
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry*
  • Glutaral
  • Kinetics
  • Magnetics
  • Methylene Blue / isolation & purification*
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Pectins / chemistry*
  • Solutions
  • Thermodynamics


  • Adipates
  • Cross-Linking Reagents
  • Solutions
  • adipic acid
  • Pectins
  • Glutaral
  • Methylene Blue