What impact have tobacco control policies, cigarette price and tobacco control programme funding had on Australian adolescents' smoking? Findings over a 15-year period

Addiction. 2011 Aug;106(8):1493-502. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03429.x. Epub 2011 Jun 21.


Aims: To assess the impact of tobacco control policies relating to youth access, clean indoor air and tobacco advertising at point-of-sale and outdoors, in addition to cigarette price and per capita tobacco control spending, on adolescent smoking prevalence.

Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression analyses examined association between policies and smoking prevalence.

Setting: Australia, 1990-2005.

Participants: A nationally representative sample of secondary students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a triennial survey (sample size per survey range: 20 560 to 27 480).

Measurements: Students' report of past-month smoking. In each jurisdiction, extent of implementation of the three policies for the year of the survey was determined. For each survey year, national per capita tobacco control spending was determined and jurisdiction-specific 12-month change in cigarette price obtained.

Findings: Extent of implementation of the three policy areas varied between states and over the survey years. Multivariate analyses that adjusted for demographic factors, year and all tobacco control variables showed that 12-month cigarette price increases [odds ratio (OR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-0.99], greater per capita tobacco control spending (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and stronger implementation of clean indoor air policies (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) were associated with reduced smoking prevalence.

Conclusions: Adult-directed, population-based tobacco control policies such as clean indoor air laws and increased prices of cigarettes, implemented as part of a well-funded comprehensive tobacco control programme are associated with lower adolescent smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior
  • Advertising / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Australia / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Commerce / economics
  • Commerce / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Policy*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Program Evaluation
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Smoking Cessation / economics
  • Smoking Cessation / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Students / statistics & numerical data
  • Time Factors
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / legislation & jurisprudence


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution