The influence of body mass index and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity on the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and adiponectin in Caucasian men

Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jun;164(6):995-1002. doi: 10.1530/EJE-11-0025. Epub 2011 Mar 14.


Objective: Previous studies have suggested that circulating adiponectin concentrations are associated positively with vitamin D and negatively with body mass index (BMI) but have not accounted for the influence of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in this relationship. This is particularly relevant because increased RAAS activity is associated with obesity and is known to lower adiponectin levels. We evaluated the association between adiponectin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) after controlling RAAS activity with dietary sodium equilibration and also evaluated whether this relationship was influenced by BMI.

Design: Cross-sectional study of 115 hypertensive Caucasian men from the Hypertensive Pathotype Consortium.

Methods: To manipulate RAAS activity, all subjects underwent 1 week of high dietary sodium (HS) diet to suppress RAAS and 1 week of low dietary sodium (LS) diet to stimulate RAAS. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between adiponectin and 25(OH)D, and the effect of BMI on this relationship, in each dietary condition.

Results: Adiponectin was higher on HS, where circulating RAAS activity was low, when compared with LS (HS=2.9 versus LS=2.4 μg/ml, P<0.0001). 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with adiponectin, and BMI was a statistically significant effect modifier of the relationship between 25(OH)D and adiponectin on both diets (P interaction <0.01 between BMI and 25(OH)D).

Conclusions: Higher 25(OH)D concentrations were independently associated with higher adiponectin levels, particularly when BMI was high. Dietary sodium balance and circulating RAAS activity did not appear to affect this relationship. Future studies should explore whether vitamin D supplementation increases adiponectin levels in obesity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood*
  • Adipose Tissue / physiology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Homeostasis / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hydroxycholecalciferols / blood*
  • Hypertension / blood
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology*
  • Sodium, Dietary / pharmacology
  • Whites


  • Adiponectin
  • Hydroxycholecalciferols
  • Sodium, Dietary