Linked response for prevention, care, and treatment of HIV/AIDS, STIs, and reproductive health issues: results after 18 months of implementation in five operational districts in Cambodia

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jul 1;57(3):e47-55. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318216d5cf.


Objectives: To describe the implementation and results of the linked response (LR) in Cambodia after 18 months of follow-up.

Methods: The main objectives of the LR are to increase access to sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevention, testing, care, and treatment and to strengthen existing reproductive health services through increased linkages within and between public health facilities and community-based services. The LR was piloted in Cambodia in 2008, in 2 demonstration projects, covering 5 operational districts. Routine data were collected and analyzed before (2007), during (2008), and after (2009) the implementation of the LR.

Results: Overall in the 5 operational districts, the proportion of pregnant women, tested for HIV increased from 6% (1261 of 21,376) in 2007 to 86% (18394 of 21,478) in 2009. Syphilis testing, introduced early 2009, reached similar (85%) coverage as HIV by the end of 2009. Between 2007 and 2009, reproductive indicators also increased: antenatal care coverage (at least 1 visit) from 80% to 100%, public health facility delivery rates from 26% to 46%, and contraceptive prevalence from 24% to 28%. Antiretroviral uptake was high among HIV-positive mothers and exposed infants, 84% and 95% respectively, and 3 of 36 (8%) infants tested so far for HIV were diagnosed positive. However, 6 maternal (HIV-positive women) and 7 child deaths (1 tested positive) occurred during the pregnancy or the 30-week postpartum follow-up period.

Conclusions: Sexually transmitted infection/HIV indicators and follow-up dramatically improved after the LR was implemented. Efforts should be pursued to further improve quality of health care services.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cambodia / epidemiology
  • Delivery of Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Infections / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control
  • Maternal-Child Health Centers
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / prevention & control
  • Prenatal Care / methods
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / therapy*
  • Syphilis / drug therapy
  • Syphilis / epidemiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-HIV Agents