Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and Trans-esophageal Ultrasound Scanning with Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) are important, novel techniques for the diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that have been incorporated into lung cancer staging guidelines. To guide and optimize treatment decisions, especially for NSCLC patients in stage III and IV, EGFR and KRAS mutation status is often required. The concordance rate of the mutation analysis between these cytological aspirates and histological samples obtained by surgical staging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the extent to which allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR with hydrolysis probes could be reliably performed on EBUS and EUS fine needle aspirates by comparing the results with histological material from the same patient. We analyzed a series of 43 NSCLC patients for whom cytological and histological material was available. We demonstrated that these standard molecular techniques can be accurately applied on fine needle cytological aspirates from NSCLC patients. Importantly, we show that all mutations detected in the histological material of primary tumor were also identified in the cytological samples. We conclude that molecular profiling can be reliably performed on fine needle cytology aspirates from NSCLC patients.