Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2008: general view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility

J Infect Chemother. 2011 Aug;17(4):510-23. doi: 10.1007/s10156-011-0214-5. Epub 2011 Mar 17.


For the purpose of nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens collected from patients in Japan, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy conducted a third year of nationwide surveillance during the period from January to April 2008. A total of 1,097 strains were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections. Susceptibility testing was evaluable with 987 strains (189 Staphylococcus aureus, 211 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 Streptococcus pyogenes, 187 Haemophilus influenzae, 106 Moraxella catarrhalis, 126 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 162 Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A total of 44 antibacterial agents, including 26 β-lactams (four penicillins, three penicillins in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors, four oral cephems, eight parenteral cephems, one monobactam, five carbapenems, and one penem), three aminoglycosides, four macrolides (including a ketolide), one lincosamide, one tetracycline, two glycopeptides, six fluoroquinolones, and one oxazolidinone were used for the study. Analysis was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was as high as 59.8%, and those of penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP and PRSP) were 35.5 and 11.8%, respectively. Among H. influenzae, 13.9% of them were found to be β-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediately resistant (BLNAI), 26.7% to be β-lactamase-non-producing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR), and 5.3% to be β-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains. A high frequency (76.5%) of β-lactamase-producing strains was suspected in Moraxella catarrhalis isolates. Four (3.2%) extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae were found among 126 strains. Four isolates (2.5%) of P. aeruginosa were found to be metallo β-lactamase-producing strains, including three (1.9%) suspected multidrug-resistant strains showing resistance to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Continual national surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory pathogens is crucial in order to monitor changing patterns of susceptibility and to be able to update treatment recommendations on a regular basis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Bacterial Infections / epidemiology
  • Bacterial Infections / microbiology*
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Haemophilus influenzae / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Inhibitory Concentration 50
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / drug effects
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Moraxella catarrhalis / drug effects
  • Population Surveillance
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / microbiology*
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / drug effects


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents