Thoracoscopy is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of pleural diseases. Its diagnostic yield is 95% in patients with malignant pleural disease, with approximately 90% successful pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusion and 95% for pneumothorax. At the same time, thoracoscopy constitutes an important tool in the research of pleural pathophysiology and molecular biology. The improvement of technology has provided important tools to thoracoscopy, such as autofluorescence, narrow band imaging, and infrared light, used in clinical and basic research in many disorders involving the pleura. For these reasons, training in thoracoscopy should be considered equally important as training in bronchoscopy for residents in respiratory medicine.
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