Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) is a pancreatic islet-specific cytokine that cosecretes with insulin and is important for β cell function. Here, we show that PANDER is constitutively expressed in hepatocytes, and its expression is significantly increased in steatotic livers of diabetic insulin-resistant db/db mice and mice fed a high-fat diet. Overexpression of PANDER in the livers of C57Bl/6 mice promoted lipogenesis, with increased Forkhead box 1 (FOXO1) expression, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of hepatic PANDER significantly attenuated steatosis, with reduced FOXO1 expression in db/db mice. Hepatic PANDER silencing also attenuated insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in db/db mice. In cultured hepatocytes, PANDER overexpression induced lipid deposition, increased FOXO1 expression, and suppressed insulin-stimulated Akt activation and FOXO1 inactivation. Moreover, FOXO1 overexpression increased PANDER expression in cultured hepatocytes and mouse livers.
Conclusion: PANDER promotes lipogenesis and compromises insulin signaling in the liver by increasing FOXO1 activity. PANDER may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of fatty liver and insulin resistance.
Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.