Background: The repeated use of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides to control grass weeds has selected for resistance in Lolium spp. populations in Italy. The efficacy of pinoxaden, a recently marketed phenylpyrazoline herbicide, is of concern where resistance to ACCase inhibitors has already been ascertained. ACCase mutations associated with pinoxaden resistance were investigated, and the cross-resistance pattern to clodinafop, haloxyfop, sethoxydim, clethodim and pinoxaden was established on homo/heterozygous plants for four mutant ACCase alleles.
Results: Seven different mutant ACCase alleles (1781-Leu, 1999-Leu, 2041-Asn, 2041-Val, 2078-Gly, 2088-Arg and 2096-Ala) and 13 combinations with two types of mutation were detected in the pinoxaden-resistant plants. The 1781-Leu allele appears to confer a dominant resistance to pinoxaden, clodinafop, haloxyfop, sethoxydim and clethodim at 60 g AI ha(-1) . The 2041-Asn and 2041-Val alleles are associated with dominant or partially dominant resistance to FOPs, no substantial resistance to DIMs and a moderate resistance to pinoxaden. The 2088-Arg allele endows a partially dominant resistance to clodinafop, sethoxydim and most likely to pinoxaden. In addition, non-target-site resistance mechanisms seem to be involved in pinoxaden resistance.
Conclusion: Almost all the ACCase mutations selected in the field by other ACCase inhibitors are likely to confer resistance to pinoxaden. Although pinoxaden is sometimes able to control FOP-resistant populations, it should not be considered as a sustainable ACCase resistance management tool. The presence of non-ACCase-based resistance mechanisms that could confer resistance to herbicides with different modes of action further complicates the resistance management strategies.
Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.