Color vision processing in the primate visual system is initiated by absorption of light by three different spectral classes of cones. Consequently, color vision is described as being trivariant or trichromatic, and initial psychophysical studies demonstrated that colors could be matched by the use of three different primaries. In 1802, Thomas Young (1) proposed a model that perception of color can be coded by three principal color receptors rather than thousands of color receptors coding for individual colors. Spectral sensitivity of cones can be determined through several methods. Two of these methods include isolating receptoral responses (2) using calculations from color matching function of normals and dichromats (a dichromat is a subject whose retina has one cone photopigment missing) (3), microspectrometry (4), or reflection densitometry (5, 6). The microspectrometer technique involves isolating a single cone and passing light through it. The change in transmission of different wavelengths can be used to calculate the spectral absorption of the cone or determine the change in electrical response. Reflection densitometry involves directing light in the retina and determining the change in absorption as a function of wavelength. These results are subsequently used to calculate spectral absorption.
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Cone Photoreceptor Sensitivities and Unique Hue Chromatic Responses: Correlation and Causation Imply the Physiological Basis of Unique HuesRW Pridmore. PLoS One 8 (10), e77134. PMID 24204755.This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical r …
Spatiochromatic Interactions Between Individual Cone Photoreceptors in the Human RetinaWS Tuten et al. J Neurosci 37 (39), 9498-9509. PMID 28871030.A remarkable feature of human vision is that the retina and brain have evolved circuitry to extract useful spatial and spectral information from signals originating in a …
Adaptive Plasticity During the Development of Colour VisionHJ Wagner et al. Prog Retin Eye Res 24 (4), 521-36. PMID 15845347. - ReviewColour vision greatly enhances the discriminatory and cognitive capabilities of visual systems and is found in a great majority of vertebrates and many invertebrates. How …
Red, Green, and Red-Green Hybrid Pigments in the Human Retina: Correlations Between Deduced Protein Sequences and Psychophysically Measured Spectral SensitivitiesLT Sharpe et al. J Neurosci 18 (23), 10053-69. PMID 9822760.To analyze the human red, green, and red-green hybrid cone pigments in vivo, we studied 41 male dichromats, each of whose X chromosome carries only a single visual pigmen …
The Simple Perfection of Quantum Correlation in Human VisionMA Bouman. Prog Neurobiol 78 (1), 38-60. PMID 16377059. - ReviewA theory is presented that specifies the amount of light that is needed for the perception of any stimulus that is defined in space, time and color. For detection and dis …