The localization of the N-terminal fragment of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) precursor in the heart of the frog Rana ridibunda was examined by the indirect immunofluorescence and the immunogold techniques using an antiserum directed against synthetic rat ANF (Asp11-Ala37). At the optic level, positive material was found in most atrial myocytes. Staining of consecutive sections of frog heart with antibodies against N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the proANF molecule showed that both peptides are contained in the same cardiocytes. In the rat atrium, antibodies against the N-terminal ANF region induced a more intense labeling than in the frog atrium. Electron microscopic studies indicated that all secretory granules present in frog atrial cardiocytes contain N-terminal ANF-like immunoreactive material. The positive material localized in frog atrium was characterized by gel filtration and radioimmunological detection. Serial dilutions of frog atrial extracts exhibited displacement curves which were parallel to that obtained with synthetic human ANF (Asn1-Asp30). Sephadex G-50 gel chromatography of the immunoreactive material showed that the N-terminal ANF-like immunoreactivity eluted in a single peak corresponding to high molecular weight material. These results indicate that the N-terminal fragment of frog proANF is immunologically and biochemically related to the homologous mammalian peptide.