Immune profiling by multiple gene expression analysis in patients at-risk and with type 1 diabetes

Clin Immunol. 2011 Jun;139(3):290-301. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2011.02.016. Epub 2011 Feb 24.


There is a need for biomarkers to monitor the development and progression of type 1 DM. We analyzed mRNA expression levels for granzyme B, perforin, fas ligand, TNF-α, IFN-γ, Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and Immunoglobulin G gamma chain (IgG<gamma>) genes in peripheral blood of at-risk, new-onset and long-term type 1 DM , and healthy controls. The majority of the genes were suppressed in long-term type 1 DM compared to controls and new-onset patients. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA levels were significantly higher in new-onset compared to at-risk and long-term groups. There was decreased mRNA expression for AID and IgG<gamma> and up-regulation of IFN-γ with age in controls. Data suggest an overall depressed immunity in long-term type 1 DM. Increased gene expression levels for IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in new-onset patients from at-risk patients might be used as potential markers for progression of the disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / genetics*
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • RNA, Messenger