Regulation of toxin production by Bacillus cereus and its food safety implications

Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011 Aug;37(3):188-213. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2011.558832. Epub 2011 Mar 22.


Toxin expression is of utmost importance for the food-borne pathogen B. cereus, both in food poisoning and non-gastrointestinal host infections as well as in interbacterial competition. Therefore it is no surprise that the toxin gene expression is tightly regulated by various internal and environmental signals. An overview of the current knowledge regarding emetic and diarrheal toxin transcription and expression is presented in this review. The food safety aspects and management tools such as temperature control, food preservatives and modified atmosphere packaging are discussed specifically for B. cereus emetic and diarrheal toxin production.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacillus cereus / genetics
  • Bacillus cereus / pathogenicity*
  • Bacterial Toxins / biosynthesis*
  • Food Microbiology*
  • Food Safety / methods*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Humans


  • Bacterial Toxins