Genetic predisposition to persistent apical periodontitis

J Endod. 2011 Apr;37(4):455-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2011.01.009.


Introduction: The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 is a key regulator of host responses to microbial infection and a major modulator of extracellular matrix catabolism and bone resorption. Allele2 of IL-1β is associated with a four-fold increase in IL-1β production. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the gene polymorphism of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of endodontic failure. We hypothesized that the gene polymorphism (allele2 of IL-1β) would influence host response and enhance inflammatory reactions predisposing to persistent apical periodontitis (PAP).

Materials and methods: Subjects with at least 1 year of follow-up after root canal therapy (RCT) were recalled. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and 34 subjects with signs/symptoms of PAP with otherwise acceptable RCT were included. Sixty-one controls showed healing with acceptable RCT. Genomic DNA from buccal mucosa was amplified by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism to distinguish the alleles of IL-1β gene polymorphism.

Results: A significant difference in the distribution of the polymorphic genotype among cases (70.6%) and controls (24.6%) (P < .001, Pearson χ(2)) was shown.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that specific genetic markers associated with increased IL-1β production may contribute to increased susceptibility to PAP.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics*
  • Genotype
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / genetics
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-1beta / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periapical Periodontitis / diagnostic imaging
  • Periapical Periodontitis / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length / genetics
  • Radiography
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Root Canal Therapy
  • Tooth, Nonvital / diagnostic imaging
  • Treatment Failure


  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-1beta