Introduction: The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 is a key regulator of host responses to microbial infection and a major modulator of extracellular matrix catabolism and bone resorption. Allele2 of IL-1β is associated with a four-fold increase in IL-1β production. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the gene polymorphism of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of endodontic failure. We hypothesized that the gene polymorphism (allele2 of IL-1β) would influence host response and enhance inflammatory reactions predisposing to persistent apical periodontitis (PAP).
Materials and methods: Subjects with at least 1 year of follow-up after root canal therapy (RCT) were recalled. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and 34 subjects with signs/symptoms of PAP with otherwise acceptable RCT were included. Sixty-one controls showed healing with acceptable RCT. Genomic DNA from buccal mucosa was amplified by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism to distinguish the alleles of IL-1β gene polymorphism.
Results: A significant difference in the distribution of the polymorphic genotype among cases (70.6%) and controls (24.6%) (P < .001, Pearson χ(2)) was shown.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that specific genetic markers associated with increased IL-1β production may contribute to increased susceptibility to PAP.
Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.