Gallic acid indanone and mangiferin xanthone are strong determinants of immunosuppressive anti-tumour effects of Mangifera indica L. bark in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells

Cancer Lett. 2011 Jun 1;305(1):21-31. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2011.02.011. Epub 2011 Mar 21.


Vimang is a standardized extract derived from Mango bark (Mangifera Indica L.), commonly used as anti-inflammatory phytomedicine, which has recently been used to complement cancer therapies in cancer patients. We have further investigated potential anti-tumour effects of glucosylxanthone mangiferin and indanone gallic acid, which are both present in Vimang extract. We observed significant anti-tumour effects of both Vimang constituents in the highly aggressive and metastatic breast cancer cell type MDA-MB231. At the molecular level, mangiferin and gallic acid both inhibit classical NFκB activation by IKKα/β kinases, which results in impaired IκB degradation, NFκB translocation and NFκB/DNA binding. In contrast to the xanthone mangiferin, gallic acid further inhibits additional NFκB pathways involved in cancer cell survival and therapy resistance, such as MEK1, JNK1/2, MSK1, and p90RSK. This results in combinatorial inhibition of NFκB activity by gallic acid, which results in potent inhibition of NFκB target genes involved in inflammation, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and angiogenesis, such as IL-6, IL-8, COX2, CXCR4, XIAP, bcl2, VEGF. The cumulative NFκB inhibition by gallic acid, but not mangiferin, is also reflected at the level of cell survival, which reveals significant tumour cytotoxic effects in MDA-MB231 cells. Altogether, we identify gallic acid, besides mangiferin, as an essential anti-cancer component in Vimang extract, which demonstrates multifocal inhibition of NFκB activity in the cancer-inflammation network.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
  • Female
  • Gallic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Gallic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology
  • Mangifera / chemistry
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Bark / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Xanthones / pharmacology*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Mangifera indica extract
  • Plant Extracts
  • Xanthones
  • mangiferin
  • Gallic Acid