Paramutation: a process for acquiring trans-generational regulatory states

Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011 Apr;14(2):210-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Mar 17.


Basic tenets of Mendelian inheritance are violated by paramutations in which trans-homolog interactions lead to heritable changes in gene regulation and phenotype. First described in plants, similar behaviors have now been noted in diverse eukaryotes. Genetic and molecular studies of paramutations occurring in maize indicate that components of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) biogenesis pathway are required for the maintenance of meiotically heritable regulatory states. Although these findings lead to a hypothesis that siRNAs themselves mediate paramutation interactions, an assessment of existing data supports the opinion that siRNAs alone are insufficient. Recent evidence implies that transcription of paramutation-associated repeats and siRNA-facilitated chromatin changes at affected loci are involved in directing and maintaining the heritable changes in gene regulation that typify paramutations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Gene Silencing
  • Models, Genetic
  • Mutation*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • RNA, Plant / genetics*
  • RNA, Plant / metabolism
  • RNA, Small Interfering / genetics
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Zea mays / genetics*
  • Zea mays / metabolism


  • Plant Proteins
  • RNA, Plant
  • RNA, Small Interfering