Purpose: The purpose of the current research was to detect the underlying genetic defect in a Chinese family with X-linked congenital nystagmus and perform prenatal genetic diagnosis for their current pregnancy.
Methods: A common clinical examination and an ophthalmic evaluation were performed on the proband, one carrier, and one unaffected member. Mutation analysis of the G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) and four-point-one (4.1), ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain-containing 7 (FRMD7) genes was performed by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified exons in the proband. The detected GPR143 mutation was tested in all available family members and 200 normal controls by direct sequencing.
Results: Congenital nystagmus, obvious fundus hypopigmentation, and foveal hypoplasia were observed in the proband but not in the carriers or the unaffected members. A novel splicing mutation c.658+1 g>t not found in 200 unrelated controls was identified and co-segregated with X-linked ocular albinism (XLOA) in this family. The fetus (V:5) was hemizygous for this mutant allele.
Conclusions: We identified a novel causative mutation of GPR143 in a five-generation Chinese family with XLOA. This expanded the mutation spectrum of GPR143 and provided data elucidating the diverse and variable effects of GPR143 mutations.