Emission of mitochondrial biophotons and their effect on electrical activity of membrane via microtubules

J Integr Neurosci. 2011 Mar;10(1):65-88. doi: 10.1142/S0219635211002622.


In this paper we argue that, in addition to electrical and chemical signals propagating in the neurons of the brain, signal propagation takes place in the form of biophoton production. This statement is supported by recent experimental confirmation of photon guiding properties of a single neuron. We have investigated the interaction of mitochondrial biophotons with microtubules from a quantum mechanical point of view. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the interaction of biophotons and microtubules causes transitions/fluctuations of microtubules between coherent and incoherent states. A significant relationship between the fluctuation function of microtubules and alpha-EEG diagrams is elaborated on in this paper. We argue that the role of biophotons in the brain merits special attention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Membrane / chemistry
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism*
  • Electroencephalography / methods
  • Electromagnetic Phenomena*
  • Humans
  • Microtubules / chemistry
  • Microtubules / metabolism*
  • Mitochondria / chemistry
  • Mitochondria / metabolism*
  • Photons*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology