This Best Practice Information Sheet aims to synthesize the best-available evidence on music as a therapeutic intervention for the management of anxiety or pain related to procedural or operative interventions. The information that is contained in this sheet has been derived from studies that were included in a systematic review that was conducted by The Joanna Briggs Institute. The original references can be sourced from the systematic review. Music as a therapeutic intervention is a development largely of the mid-20th century; however, it has existed in various forms in most cultures for many centuries. The Best Practice Information Sheet includes music-listening before a procedure or operation, during a procedure or operation, and after a procedure or operation. It excludes other forms of music therapy. Several recommendations for practice are made.
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