Signal integration in the control of shoot branching

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Apr;12(4):211-21. doi: 10.1038/nrm3088.


Shoot branching is a highly plastic developmental process in which axillary buds are formed in the axil of each leaf and may subsequently be activated to give branches. Three classes of plant hormones, auxins, cytokinins and strigolactones (or strigolactone derivatives) are central to the control of bud activation. These hormones move throughout the plant forming a network of systemic signals. The past decade brought great progress in understanding the mechanisms of shoot branching control. Biological and computational studies have led to the proposal of two models, the auxin transport canalization-based model and the second messenger model, which provide mechanistic explanations for apical dominance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Transport / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Indoleacetic Acids / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Plant Development*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism
  • Plant Growth Regulators / physiology
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / physiology
  • Plant Shoots / genetics
  • Plant Shoots / growth & development*
  • Plant Shoots / metabolism
  • Plants / genetics
  • Plants / metabolism
  • Second Messenger Systems / genetics
  • Second Messenger Systems / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*


  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Plant Proteins