Fructan content of commonly consumed wheat, rye and gluten-free breads

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Aug;62(5):498-503. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.553588. Epub 2011 Mar 23.


Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates with various nutritional properties including effects on microbial metabolism, mineral absorption and satiety. They are present in a range of plant foods, with wheat being an important source. The aim of the present study was to measure the fructan content of a range of wheat, rye and gluten-free breads consumed in the United Kingdom. Fructans were measured in a range of breads using selective enzymic hydrolysis and spectrophotometry based on the AOAC 999.03 method. The breads generally contained low quantities of fructan (0.61-1.94 g/100 g), with rye bread being the richest source (1.94 g/100 g). Surprisingly, gluten-free bread contained similar quantities of fructan (1.00 g/100 g) as other breads. There was wide variation in fructan content between individual brands of granary (0.76-1.09 g/100 g) and gluten-free breads (0.36-1.79 g/100 g). Although they contain only low quantities of fructan, the widespread consumption of bread may make a significant contribution to fructan intakes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bread / analysis*
  • Diet, Gluten-Free*
  • Food Analysis
  • Fructans / chemistry*
  • Glutens / chemistry*
  • Secale*
  • Triticum*


  • Fructans
  • Glutens