Clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis

Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011 Apr;19(2):91-102. doi: 10.3109/09273948.2011.564068.


Clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis are reviewed. Findings of congenital and acute acquired ocular toxoplasmosis include retinal scars, white-appearing lesions in the active phase often associated with vitritis. Complications can include fibrous bands, secondary serous or rhegmatogenous retinal detachments, optic neuritis and neuropathy, cataracts, increased intraocular pressure during active infection, and choroidal neovascular membranes. Recurrences in untreated congenital toxoplasmosis occur in teenage years. Manifestations at birth are less severe, and recurrences are fewer in those who were treated promptly early in the course of their disease in utero and in the first year of life. Severe retinal involvement is common at diagnosis of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States and Brazil. Acute acquired infections also may be complicated by toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, with recurrences most common close to the time of acquisition. Suppressive treatment can reduce recurrent disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brazil
  • Cataract / parasitology
  • Choroiditis / parasitology
  • Cicatrix / parasitology
  • Eye Diseases
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / parasitology
  • Optic Nerve Diseases / parasitology
  • Recurrence
  • Retinal Diseases / parasitology
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / complications*
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / congenital
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / physiopathology
  • United States
  • Uveitis, Anterior / parasitology
  • Vision Disorders / parasitology
  • Vitreous Body