At the request of the State Secretary of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport a national multidisciplinary workgroup developed an evidence-based practice guideline for the management of pregnant women with an imminent preterm delivery after a pregnancy of less than 26 weeks duration and for extremely preterm neonates. Active care measures are advised for neonates from a gestational age of 24 0/7 weeks onwards, unless there are serious arguments that justify a conservative management. In cases of imminent preterm delivery, intrauterine transport to a perinatological care centre is advised from a gestational age of 23 4/7 weeks onwards. In cases of imminent preterm delivery, glucocorticoids to enhance fetal lung maturity should be administered from a gestational age of 23 5/7 weeks onwards. From a gestational age of 24 0/7 weeks onwards a caesarean section may be considered if the fetal condition during spontaneous labour justifies this.