A multilevel analysis of the impact of socio-structural and environmental influences on condom use among female sex workers

AIDS Behav. 2012 May;16(4):934-42. doi: 10.1007/s10461-011-9925-y.


This study uses multilevel analysis to examine individual, organizational and community levels of influence on condom use among female commercial sex workers (FSW) in the Philippines. A randomized controlled study involving 1,382 female commercial sex workers assigned to three intervention groups consisting of peer education, managerial training, combined peer and managerial intervention and a usual care control group was conducted. The results of the multilevel analysis show that FSWs who work in establishments with condom use rules tend to have a higher level of condom use (β = .70, P < 0.01). Among the different intervention groups, the combined peer and managerial intervention had the largest effect on condom use (β = 1.30, P < 0.01) compared with the usual care group. Using a three-level hierarchical model, we found that 62% of the variation lies within individuals, whereas 24% and 14% of the variation lies between establishments, and communities, respectively. Standard errors were underestimated when clustering of the FSWs in the different establishments and communities were not taken into consideration. The results demonstrate the importance of using multilevel analysis for community-based HIV/AIDS intervention programs to examine individual, establishment and community effects.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Community Health Planning
  • Condoms / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology*
  • HIV Seropositivity / transmission
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Peer Group
  • Philippines / epidemiology
  • Sex Workers / statistics & numerical data*
  • Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult