"Combination-oriented molecular-targeting prevention" of cancer: a model involving the combination of TRAIL and a DR5 inducer

Environ Health Prev Med. 2010 Jul;15(4):203-10. doi: 10.1007/s12199-009-0128-3. Epub 2010 Jan 6.


Malignant tumors carry a high risk of death, and the prevention of malignant tumors is a crucial issue in preventive medicine. To this end, many chemopreventive agents have been tested, but the effects of single agents have been found to be insufficient to justify clinical trials. We have therefore hypothesized that combinations of different chemopreventive agents may synergistically enhance the preventive effect of chemopreventive agents used singly. To provide the treating physician with some guideline by which to choose the most effective agents to be combined, we propose a strategy which we have termed the "combination-oriented molecular-targeting prevention" of cancer. As the molecular target of our model, we focused on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which specifically causes apoptosis in malignant tumor cells. Many of these agents were found to up-regulate the expression of death receptor 5, a TRAIL receptor. They were also found to synergistically induce apoptosis in malignant tumor cells when combined with TRAIL. Here, we strongly advocate that the strategy of "combination-oriented molecular-targeting prevention" of cancer will be a practical approach for chemoprevention against human malignant tumors.