Genome demethylation and imprinting in the endosperm

Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011 Apr;14(2):162-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2011.02.006. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Abstract

Imprinting occurs in the endosperm of flowering plants. The endosperm, a product of central cell fertilization, is critical for embryo and seed development. Imprinting in the endosperm is mainly due to the inherited differences in gamete epigenetic composition. Studies have also shown that there are differences in genomic DNA methylation patterns between embryo and endosperm. Examining those differences, along with mutations in the DNA demethylase gene DEMETER, gives insight into the number of imprinted genes and how an antagonistic relationship between TE defense and gene regulation could evolutionarily affect imprinting establishment. Finally, studies demonstrate that DEMETER demethylase activity influences endosperm chromatin composition, and could possibly enhance DNA de novo methylation activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA Methylation*
  • Endosperm / genetics
  • Endosperm / metabolism*
  • Genome, Plant*
  • Genomic Imprinting*
  • Magnoliopsida / genetics*
  • Magnoliopsida / growth & development
  • Magnoliopsida / metabolism
  • N-Glycosyl Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Polycomb-Group Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Seeds / genetics
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism*
  • Zea mays / genetics
  • Zea mays / growth & development
  • Zea mays / metabolism

Substances

  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Polycomb-Group Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • DEMETER protein, Arabidopsis
  • N-Glycosyl Hydrolases