Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among casino dealers

J Occup Environ Med. 2011 Apr;53(4):346-51. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318212235f.


Objective: This study quantified casino dealers' occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

Methods: We measured casino dealers' exposure to ETS components by analyzing full-shift air and preshift and postshift urine samples.

Results: Casino dealers were exposed to nicotine, 4-vinyl pyridine, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, solanesol, and respirable suspended particulates. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine increased significantly during an 8-hour work shift both with and without adjustment for creatinine clearance. Creatinine-unadjusted cotinine significantly increased during the 8-hour shift, but creatinine-adjusted cotinine did not increase significantly.

Conclusions: Casino dealers at the three casinos were exposed to airborne ETS components and absorbed an ETS-specific component into their bodies, as demonstrated by detectable levels of urinary NNAL. The casinos should ban smoking on their premises and offer employee smoking cessation programs.

MeSH terms

  • Acetaldehyde / urine
  • Cotinine / urine
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Formaldehyde / urine
  • Gambling*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocarbons, Aromatic / urine
  • Nevada
  • Nicotine / urine
  • Nitrosamines / urine
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Particulate Matter / urine
  • Pyridines / urine
  • Terpenes / urine
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution*


  • Hydrocarbons, Aromatic
  • Nitrosamines
  • Particulate Matter
  • Pyridines
  • Terpenes
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Formaldehyde
  • Nicotine
  • Creatinine
  • 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butan-1-ol
  • solanesol
  • Acetaldehyde
  • 4-vinylpyridine
  • Cotinine