Chronic use of anabolic adrogenic steroids (AAS) has been known to cause serious adverse effects. While the effects of AASs on cardiovascular system are well known, toxicity on other organs has received less attention. A doserelated nephrotoxic effect has been proposed and a wide variety of morpho-functional damages have been observed, but the exact pathophysiological mechanism of action is still not well known. In the present minireview, we highlight the remaining issues through an analysis of the pertinent literature. As with HSPs toxic agents their overexpression could be considered a protective reaction against AAS abuse however, comprehensive studies concerning the whole range of Hsps/chaperones expressions in all organs after long term use of AAS are needed.