Microalbuminuria in the paediatric age: current knowledge and emerging questions

Acta Paediatr. 2011 Sep;100(9):1180-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02291.x. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

Abstract

The prevalence of microalbuminuria (MA) in children and adolescents differs from the one in adults, and it is estimated to be about 5.7-7.3% in boys and 12.7-15.1% in girls. The percentage is greater in smaller age group, whereas a positive association is found between albumin excretion rate and pubertal development stage in nondiabetic subjects. The data so far suggest that impairment of glucose metabolism, obesity-related proatherosclerotic pathways and the impact of haemodynamic load constitute major determinants of albuminuria development in the early years of life. In everyday practice if persistent MA is present at a young age, especially in the setting of diabetes, further investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, a more careful follow-up and dietary/lifestyle interventions are needed.

Conclusion: Although the significance of MA in paediatric essential hypertension has yet to be determined, its role in diabetic children and adolescents is established and albuminuria assessment has been utilized as a screening test for the presence of diabetes-related kidney disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Albuminuria / diagnosis
  • Albuminuria / pathology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Evidence-Based Medicine*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension
  • Kidney Diseases
  • Male
  • Obesity
  • Pediatrics*
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Risk