The prevalence of microalbuminuria (MA) in children and adolescents differs from the one in adults, and it is estimated to be about 5.7-7.3% in boys and 12.7-15.1% in girls. The percentage is greater in smaller age group, whereas a positive association is found between albumin excretion rate and pubertal development stage in nondiabetic subjects. The data so far suggest that impairment of glucose metabolism, obesity-related proatherosclerotic pathways and the impact of haemodynamic load constitute major determinants of albuminuria development in the early years of life. In everyday practice if persistent MA is present at a young age, especially in the setting of diabetes, further investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, a more careful follow-up and dietary/lifestyle interventions are needed.
Conclusion: Although the significance of MA in paediatric essential hypertension has yet to be determined, its role in diabetic children and adolescents is established and albuminuria assessment has been utilized as a screening test for the presence of diabetes-related kidney disease.
© 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.