Water extracts of cinnamon and clove exhibits potent inhibition of protein glycation and anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo hypolipidemic activity in zebrafish

Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Jul;49(7):1521-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.03.043. Epub 2011 Apr 5.


Advanced glycation end products contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. Aqueous extracts of ground pepper, cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, and clove were analyzed and tested for anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo using hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. Cinnamon and clove extracts (at final 10 μg/mL) had the strongest anti-glycation and antioxidant activity in this study. Cinnamon and clove had the strongest inhibition of activity against copper-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and LDL phagocytosis by macrophages. Cinnamon or clove extracts had potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. They exhibited hypolipidemic activity in a hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model; the clove extract-treated group had a 68% and 80% decrease in serum cholesterol and TG levels, respectively. The clove extract-fed group had the smallest increase in body weight and height and the strongest antioxidant activity following a 5-week high cholesterol diet. Hydrophilic ingredients of cinnamon and clove showed potent activities to suppress the incidence of atherosclerosis and diabetes via strong antioxidant potential, prevention of apoA-I glycation and LDL-phagocytosis, inhibition of CETP, and hypolipidemic activity. These results suggest the potential to develop a new functional dietary agent to treat chronic metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / isolation & purification
  • Atherosclerosis / prevention & control*
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cholesterol, LDL / analysis
  • Cholesterol, LDL / metabolism
  • Cinnamomum zeylanicum / chemistry*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Ginger / chemistry
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / metabolism
  • Glycosylation / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / analysis
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / metabolism
  • Male
  • Phagocytosis / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Rosmarinus / chemistry
  • Syzygium / chemistry*
  • Zebrafish


  • Antioxidants
  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Lipoproteins, HDL
  • Plant Extracts