Proteotoxic stress (PS) is generated in cells under a variety of conditions involving accumulation of misfolded proteins. To avoid the toxicity of unmitigated PS, cells activate the heat shock response (HSR). HSR involves upregulation of factors such as ubiquitin and the non-housekeeping chaperone Hsp70 which assist with metabolism of aberrant proteins. The PS-HSR axis is a potential anticancer treatment target since many tumor cells display constitutive PS and dependence on HSR due to their rapid rates of proliferation and translation. In fact, induction of PS via stimulation of protein misfolding (hyperthermia), inhibition of proteasomes (bortezomib) or inhibition of Hsp90 (geldanamycin) have all been considered or used for cancer treatment. We found that combination of bortezomib with an inducer of protein misfolding (hyperthermia or puromycin) resulted in enhanced PS. HSR was also induced, but could not mitigate the elevated PS and the cells died via largely p53-independent apoptosis. Thus, combination treatments were more cytotoxic in vitro than the component single treatments. Consistent with this, combination of non-toxic doses of puromycin with bortezomib significantly increased the antitumor activity of bortezomib in a mouse model of multiple myeloma. These results provide support for using combination treatments that disrupt the balance of PS and HSR to increase the therapeutic index of anticancer therapies.