Background: Hesperidin, a flavanone present in citrus fruits, has been identified as a potent anticancer agent because of its proapoptotic and antiproliferative characteristics in some tumor cells. However, the precise mechanisms of action are not entirely understood.
Aim: The main purpose of this study is to investigate the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) in hesperidin's anticancer actions in human pre-B NALM-6 cells, which expresses wild-type p53.
Methods: The effects of hesperidin on cell-cycle distribution, proliferation, and caspase-mediated apoptosis were examined in NALM-6 cells in the presence or absence of GW9662. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), p53, phospho-IκB, Bcl-2, Bax, and XIAP proteins were focused on using the immunoblotting assay. The transcriptional activities of PPARγ and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were analyzed by the transcription factor assay kits. The expression of PPARγ and p53 was analyzed using the RT-PCR method.
Results: Hesperidin induced the expression and transcriptional activity of PPARγ and promoted p53 accumulation and downregulated constitutive NF-κB activity in a PPARγ-dependent and PPARγ-independent manner. The growth-inhibitory effect of hesperidin was partially reduced when the cells preincubated with PPARγ antagonist prior to the exposure to hesperidin.
Conclusions: The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that hesperidin-mediated proapoptotic and antiproliferative actions are regulated via both PPARγ-dependent and PPARγ-independent pathways in NALM-6 cells. These data provide the first evidence that hesperidin could be developed as an agent against hematopoietic malignancies.