This review by three established clinicians/researchers and two 'rising stars' in the field of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) describes recent progress in this area and highlights priorities for future research. Empirically testable models of PNES are emerging but many questions about the aetiology of PNES remain unanswered at present. Video-EEG has made it possible for doctors to make secured diagnoses of PNES in more cases. However, unacceptable diagnostic delays and misdiagnoses are still common. Non-specific EEG changes are often misinterpreted as evidence of epilepsy. A better understanding of the symptomatology of PNES may allow earlier and more accurate diagnoses using self-report questionnaires. The communication of the diagnosis and the engagement of patient in psychological treatment can be difficult. A recent pilot RCT has demonstrated the effectiveness of a psychological treatment in reducing seizures in the short term, but longer-term effectiveness is yet to be demonstrated.
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