High-dose-rate (HDR) remote afterloading intracavitary brachytherapy has been widely used in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix in Europe and Asia since the 1960's. Recently, there has been an increase of interest in the use of this technique in North America. Most of the non-randomized studies suggest similar survival, local control, and complication rates using fractionated high-dose-rate remote afterloading intracavitary brachytherapy combined with external beam irradiation compared to historical or concurrent low-dose-rate (LDR) controls. However, the techniques as well as the dose fractionation schedules used in different institutions are variable. The optimal technique and dose fractionation scheme has yet to be established through systematic clinical trials.