Morningness-eveningness, chronotypes and health-impairing behaviors in adolescents

Chronobiol Int. 2011 Apr;28(3):238-47. doi: 10.3109/07420528.2010.549599.


The impact of diurnal preferences on health-related behaviors is acknowledged but relatively understudied. The aim of this study was threefold: (1) testing the measurement model of the Hungarian version of the reduced Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (Hungarian Version of the rMEQ); (2) estimating chronotypes and their prevalence; and (3) analyzing the relationship between morningness-eveningness/chronotypes and health-impairing behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, and physical inactivity in adolescents. Self-reported data on the Hungarian version of the rMEQ, smoking, alcohol use, and physical inactivity obtained from Hungarian high-school students (ninth grade, N = 2565) were analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), latent profile analysis (LPA), structural equation modeling, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A one-factor model of morningness was supported, which included rising time, peak time, retiring time, and self-evaluation of chronotype. Morningness was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking and alcohol use, and also with a lower level of physical inactivity. Using LPA, the authors identified three chronotypes: intermediate type (50.7%), morning type (30.5%), and evening type (18.8%). Compared to the evening-type participants, intermediate- and morning-type participants were significantly less likely to experiment with smoking, to smoke nondaily, and to smoke daily. Moreover, both intermediate- and morning-type students reported less lifetime alcohol use and less physical inactivity than evening-type students. Chronopsychological research can help to understand the relatively unexplored determinants of health-impairing behaviors in adolescents associated with chronotype.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alcohol Drinking*
  • Chronobiology Phenomena / physiology*
  • Data Collection
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motor Activity*
  • Smoking*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires