A Swedish cohort analysis in this issue (1) demonstrates a significant reduction in all cause mortality and in cardiovascular mortality associated with several measures of sun exposure. In addition, ultraviolet exposure from tanning beds is associated with a significant increase in all cause mortality and cancer mortality. A potential explanation for the protective association is that UV exposure results in high levels of serum vitamin D which may improve survival. However, that explanation does not hold for ultraviolet exposure from tanning beds, which in this study is associated with a significant increase in all cause mortality and cancer mortality. Such a finding is curious and inconsistent with a vitamin D hypothesis. These results should impel investigators to study further the biology of ultraviolet radiation, both natural and artificial, and its health effects.