The novel pentatricopeptide repeat protein PNM1 has recently been shown to be dual localized to the nucleus and mitochondria. In the nucleus it binds proteins involved in regulating gene expression, especially a TCP transcription factor. This class of proteins was recently shown to control the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins that contain cis-acting "site II" regulatory elements in their promoter regions. The analysis of mutant plants showed that some genes with site II elements have increased expression levels when PNM1 is not present in the nucleus. This suggests that PNM1 might act as a negative regulator for the expression of an unknown number of genes with site II elements. Altogether, PNM1 might act as a nuclear regulator and / or could be a retrograde messenger molecule from mitochondria to the nucleus for the fine-tuning of nuclear gene expression required for mitochondrial biogenesis.